Dark matter does not exist and the universe is 27 billion years old • Earth.com

The fabric of the universe, as we currently understand it, consists of three basic components: “ordinary matter,” “dark energy,” and “dark matter.” However, new research turns this established model on its head.

A recent study conducted by University of Ottawa It provides compelling evidence that challenges the traditional model of the universe, suggesting that there may be no room for dark matter within it.

The core of the new CCC+TL model

Dark matter, a term used in cosmology, refers to elusive matter that does not interact with light or electromagnetic fields and can only be identified through gravitational effects.

Despite its mysterious nature, dark matter has been a key element in explaining the behavior of galaxies, stars, and planets.

At the heart of this research lies… Rajendra Gupta, Distinguished Professor of Physics at the College of Science. Gupta's innovative approach involves integrating two theoretical models: variable coupling constants (CCC) and “tired light” (Turkish lire), known together as the CCC+TL model.

This model explores the idea that the forces of nature diminish over cosmic time and that light loses its energy over vast distances.

This theory has been thoroughly tested and is consistent with various astronomical observations, including the distribution of galaxies and the evolution of light from the early universe.

Consequences of a universe without dark matter

This discovery challenges the conventional understanding that dark matter makes up about 27% of the universe, ordinary matter makes up less than 5% and the rest is dark energy, while also redefining our view of the age and expansion of the universe.

“The study results confirm our previous work, which suggested that the age of the universe is 26.7 billion years, which negates the necessity of the existence of dark matter,” explains Gupta.

He continued: “Contrary to standard cosmological theories that attribute the accelerating expansion of the universe to dark energy, our findings indicate that this expansion is due to the weak forces of nature, not dark energy.”

The science behind Gupta's discovery

An integral part of Gupta's research includes analyzing “Redshifts“, a phenomenon in which light shifts towards the red part of the spectrum.

By examining data on the distribution of galaxies at low redshifts and the angular size of the acoustic horizon at high redshifts, Gupta presents a compelling argument against the existence of dark matter, while remaining consistent with key cosmological observations.

“There are many papers that question the existence of dark matter, but my paper is the first, to my knowledge, that rules out its cosmological existence while being consistent with the major cosmological observations that we have had time to confirm,” Gupta confidently concludes.

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Implications and future directions

In short, Rajendra Gupta's innovative research fundamentally challenges the prevailing cosmological model by proposing a universe without the need for dark matter.

By incorporating variable coupling constants and tired theories of light, Gupta not only challenges the conventional understanding of cosmic structure but also offers a new perspective on the expansion and age of the universe.

This pivotal study calls on the scientific community to reconsider long-standing beliefs about dark matter and offers exciting new ways to understand the fundamental forces and properties of the universe.

Through diligent analysis and a bold approach, Gupta's work represents an important step forward in our quest to unlock the mysteries of the universe.

More about dark matter

As discussed above, dark matter remains one of the most mysterious aspects of our universe. Despite being invisible and the fact that it does not emit, absorb or reflect light, dark matter plays a crucial role in the universe.

Many scientists, though certainly not Rajendra Gupta, infer its existence from the gravitational effects it exerts on visible matter, radiation, and the large-scale structure of the universe.

The basis of the theory of dark matter

The theory of dark matter arose from discrepancies between the observed mass of large astronomical objects and their mass calculated based on their gravitational effects.

In the 1930s, astronomer Fritz Zwicky was among the first to suggest that invisible matter could explain the “missing” mass in the universe. Coma group From galaxies.

Since then, evidence has continued to mount, including rotation curves of galaxies that indicate the presence of much more mass than can be explained by visible matter alone.

role in the universe

Dark matter is thought to make up about 27% of the universe's total mass and energy. Unlike ordinary matter, dark matter does not interact with the electromagnetic force, meaning it does not absorb, reflect or emit light, making it extremely difficult to detect directly.

Its existence is inferred from the effects of gravity on visible matter, the bending of light (gravitational lensing), and its effect on the cosmic microwave background radiation.

Scientists have developed several innovative ways to detect dark matter indirectly. Experiments such as those performed with underground particle detectors and space telescopes aim to observe the byproducts of dark matter interactions or annihilation.

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Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is also looking for signs of dark matter particles in high-energy particle collisions. Despite these efforts, dark matter has not yet been directly detected, making it one of the most important challenges in modern physics.

The future of dark matter research

The quest to understand dark matter continues to drive advances in astrophysics and particle physics. Future observations and experiments may reveal the nature of dark matter, shedding light on this cosmic mystery.

As technology advances, the hope is to detect dark matter particles directly or find new evidence that can confirm or challenge our current theories about the formation of the universe.

At its core, dark matter theory underscores our quest to understand the vast, unseen components of the universe. Their solution has the potential to revolutionize our understanding of the universe, from the smallest particles to the largest structures in the universe.

More about the CCC+TL model

As mentioned above as a key element of Gupta's research, two interesting concepts, variable coupling constants (CCC) and the “tired light” (TL) model, have captured the imagination of scientists and astronomers alike. Recently, these two theories have been combined into a new framework known as the CCC+TL model.

Foundations of CCC+TL

Variable coupling constants (CCC)

The theory of variable coupling invariants posits that the fundamental constants of nature, which determine the intensity of forces between particles, are not constant but vary across the universe.

This difference could have profound effects on the laws of physics as we know them, affecting everything from atomic structures to the behavior of galaxies.

“Tired Light” (TL) model.

On the other hand, the “tired light” model provides a radical explanation for the observed redshift in light from distant galaxies.

Instead of attributing this redshift to the expansion of the universe, as the Big Bang theory does, the TL model proposes that light loses energy — and is thus skewed toward the red end of the spectrum — as it travels through space.

This energy loss can be due to interactions with particles or fields, causing light to “fatigue” over vast distances.

Merge CCC and TL

The CCC+TL model represents an ambitious attempt to integrate these two theories into a coherent framework. In doing so, it aims to provide new insights into the behavior of the universe on large scales and over enormous timescales.

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Implications for cosmology

Combining CCC and TL into a single model has far-reaching implications for cosmology. It challenges the traditional understanding of cosmic expansion and the constancy of physical laws across the universe.

If the CCC+TL model is correct, it could lead to a paradigm shift in how we explain cosmic phenomena, from the cosmic microwave background radiation to the formation and evolution of galaxies.

Potential challenges and criticisms

As with any groundbreaking theory, the CCC+TL model faces skepticism and challenges from the scientific community. Critics argue that there is strong evidence to support the constancy of physical constants and the expansion of the universe according to the Big Bang model.

In addition, the CCC+TL model must contend with the lack of direct observational evidence for altered coupling constants or mechanisms underlying “tired light.”

Future prospects and research on CCC+TL

Despite these challenges, the CCC+TL model opens new avenues for research and exploration. Scientists are studying the theoretical foundations of the model, in addition to designing experiments and observations to test its predictions.

Search for evidence

A major focus is to identify experimental evidence that can support or refute the variable constants and energy loss mechanisms proposed by the model.

This includes precise measurements of the cosmic microwave background, studies of distant supernovae, and searches for differences in fundamental constants across different regions of the universe.

The role of advanced technology in CCC+TL

Advances in technology, especially in telescopes and detectors, play a crucial role in testing the CCC+TL model.

These instruments enable astronomers to observe the universe with unprecedented detail and sensitivity, potentially revealing phenomena that can support or challenge the model.

In short, the CCC+TL model represents a bold crossroads between two unconventional theories, providing a new perspective on the workings of the universe.

Although it faces significant challenges, its exploration is a testament to the dynamic and ever-evolving nature of cosmological research.

As our tools and understanding improve, our understanding of the universe's deeper secrets will also improve, perhaps with the CCC+TL model showing the way.

The full study was published in Astrophysical Journal.

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